Art, Architecture, Design & Travel




Ergonomics is about designing for people, wherever they interact with products, systems or processes.

Macroergonomics or Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of socio-technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes. (Relevant topics include communication, crew resource management, work design, work systems, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work programs, virtual organizations, telework, and quality management.)

 The goal of macroergonomics is a fully harmonized work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, job satisfaction, health and safety, and employee commitment.

 We live in a society in which employees’ well-being has a direct impact on a company’s results. The main cost components are medical costs, productivity losses, and human costs (loss of life). It is clear that such vast problems cannot be solved easily. Holistically, it is important to view well-being issues in the workplace from both detailed and systemic perspectives. Together, these views can provide more sustainable solutions than local safety fixes.

Hence we can say that, Macroergonomics, is the field of science that concentrates on designing overall work systems (WS) by providing the knowledge and methods necessary for the improvement of work systems and, thus, developing the effectiveness and performance of companies (Hendricks, 1996).

The process…

The process typically involves designing, analysing, developing, and improving work systems. Macro-level problems cannot be solved by micro-level solutions, but micro-level problems can be solved with macro-level solutions.

In contrast with (micro)ergonomics, which deals with human-machine, human-task, human-interface, usability, and safety-type issues in the workplace, macroergonomics is a system-level approach to designing the interaction between humans and technology and to understanding how activities and processes are organized to produce products and services for customers.

Macroergonomics aims at a holistic understanding of how work is designed from the top-down, in such a way that macroergonomic design is considered first, work system design second, and microergonomic design last.. The concept of socio-technical systems (STS) in organisational development provides a theoretical foundation for macroergonomics. STS explores how people and technology interact in the workplace.

Socio-Technical Systems

The more complex work systems become, the more important it is to understand the interaction between humans and technology.

The main concepts of STS are humans, tasks, structure, technology (hardware and software), and processes, as well as regulations, policies, and culture. According to macroergonomics, socio-technical work systems consist of five elements:

           Technology is needed to carry out the goals set for the work system. With the help of technology, tasks and problems can be solved.

           People (personnel) occupy a core role in work systems, since only people can achieve goals with the help of technology. Important aspects regarding people include competence, demographics, psychosocial factors, and teams.

           Organisational design specifies how technology and people are organised and managed together in work systems. Contemporary areas include lean processes and digitalisation.

           The external environment is something that cannot be influenced from inside work systems.

           The internal environment includes considerations such as the psychosocial and physical environment and cultures that are not part of the system design.

 Different human factors and ergonomic theories and methods can be applied to various levels of the macroergonomic design process. A macroergonomic system may include several interconnected work systems. Interfaces are areas in which interactions between humans and machines and software occur. Interfaces are typically designed to support goal-oriented human being and activity.

Related Posts